No rights of gain unless everybody gains – Plato

The history of humans using cash currency does go back a very long time .From upper Palaeolithic period, the primitive men used exchange of goods and engaged in trade along with barter system. Money measures a method of payment, a standard of value, a store of wealth and unit of account. Over its vast history, money has been central to developing the trade network and for the progress of business world. The Journey of currency travelled from Mesopotamian shekel emerged nearly 5000 years ago to present Crypto and digital currencies.

In ancient civilisations the coins were manufactured from copper and the iron because they were strong materials used to make weapons and the monetary value of currencies was based on the value of the metal from which they were made. Coinage era boost trade in ancient world and it treated as trusted medium of exchange. Later on precious metals such as gold, lead, silver were used for minting coins and standardised forms of coins were first used by Lydians, who become the first culture to make coins. In India coins were minted firstly in 6th century BC by the Mahajanpadas ( republic kingdoms of ancient India) known as puranas but with irregular shapes, standard weight and later many kingdoms includes Mauryas, Turkish sultans of Delhi, Mughal empires followed their own and distinct currency system and minting of coins.

Its interesting fact that shell money was also served as a legal currency until 19th/20th century in different parts of Asia and Africa. In ancient Mayan civilisation cocoa beans and chocolate had evolved to become a currency. In Roman ancient empire a person who owned a salt production site was very wealthy and sometimes salt also used as a currency. In human history polished stones, dried banana leaves rings and jewellery, beaver pelts, cocaine, buckskins, whale’s teeth etc was also used in different parts of the world

Paper money and bank notes was fist used in china during song dynasty, between 960 -1279.The convenience of transactions provided by the issuance of bank notes allowed notes used for exchange to become widespread and commonly accepted business practice. In the 18th century, the bank of Hindustan general bank in Bengal issue paper currency firstly issued in British India

After World War II and the Bretton woods conference most countries adopted “fiat money” whose value was determined according to the USD. In turn, the USD was determined by reference to gold.IN 1971, the US government ended the convertibility of dollar in to gold to help combat the great depression, and today majority of the money worldwide stopped being backed by gold reserves.

In India RBI started in 1935 empowered with bank note production. RBI issued bank notes which carrying the portrait of George VI and after independence, new notes were designed with the image of Lion capital of Ashoka, the national emblem replaced the portrait of George VI.RBI issued Mahatma Gandhi Series in 1996 which replaced all bank notes issued before 1996 and in 2016 Central government demonetised 500 and 1000 rupee notes and introduced new 500,2000,50,100 rupee notes.

The plastic money also plays a vital post in present era and the introduction of debit cards and credit cards acquired popularity and user acceptance at a rapid place. But in future such cards and ATM machines may become totally redundant. APBS ( Aadhaar Payment Bridge system) could be an alternate transaction method as a unique Aadhaar ID linked to their bank accounts and emerge as an alternate platform. Banks can get connect to NPCI (National payment corporation of India) either through NPCI Net or Internet.

The latest revolution in the way we use the money is digital currencies and crypto currencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple, Ethereum etc but still chaos exist the future lies in it. Concern over security breaches and regulatory uncertainty were cited as major reasons for the lack of mainstream enthusiasm in digital coins. Apart from the medium of payment such digital currencies is also an investment instrument, like stocks or precious metals and due to its volatile nature, the value fluctuate in tune with real world events. Such investment may difficult to track the value for auditing and accounting purposes and undisclosed investment in cryptos may cause to increase the money laundering. Web based wallets allow access to bit coins from anywhere and the paper wallets that don’t actually store your bitcoin at all, but give you the ability to set up a private key and address to receive funds for later retrieval.

RBI has repeatedly cautioned users, holders and traders of virtual currencies, including various risks associated with dealing with such virtual currencies. The quote from the union budget 2018-19

“ The government does not consider crypto currencies legal tender or coin and will take all measures to eliminate use of these crypto assets in financing illegitimate activities or as the part of payment system. The government will exposure use of block chain technology proactively for ushering in digital economy”

That there may be reasonable steps to be taken to impose taxes on the profits earned through trading cryptos. It may be difficult to complete ban trade on crypto currecies and such digital currencies in India but reasonable measures can be taken and necessary directions can be issued by RBI and in future it may be required to enact a law for digital currencies.

The nature of money and wealth changed in each period according to the society needs and life style of persons and its impact on economy and polity. The future may be a world without cash because our world is growing increasingly digital. Technological based companies push the reality of cashless society to the mainstream. Governments all over the world are also taking steps to advance the cashless narrative. Digital currencies can be designed by central banks for user identities and transaction data to be authenticated and adhering due diligence procedures. Due to the increasing trend of e-commerce such currencies are more advisable to facilitate such online and digital services. A global currency may allow to serve mass people, more access and to move faster around the world. The cashless economy would be a financial revolution in modern era.

The future money may be digital, with the concept of creating assets and liabilities but without any real exchange of any material stuffs of any such kind.

The life of money making is one undertaken under compulsion, and wealth is evidently not the good we are seeking: for it is merely useful and for the sake of something else – Aristotle



Sexual Harassment at Workplace

Sexual Harassment at Workplace

Sexual harassment exists in almost every sector and industry, but it’s astonishing that most companies turn a blind eye or are often ignorant about such an important compliance. The only way to combat it is by increasing awareness and knowledge. Sexual Harassment is one issue that has probably plagued every institution, big or small. Unfortunately, it still remains one of the most unreported offences of all times. Although, campaigns like #MeToo acted as an eye-opener, sexual harassment at the workplace still remains behind the closed doors of glass cabins.

What is Sexual Harassment?

In simple words, sexual harassment at workplace is an act or a pattern of behaviour that compromises physical, emotional or financial safety and security of a woman worker. Sexual harassment has been identified as a term which is difficult to define as it involves a range of behaviours. Efforts have been made at both national and international levels to define this term effectively. often, the term is subjected to different interpretations. Some believe that it is better not to mingle with female colleagues so that one does not get embroiled in a sexual harassment complaint. The reality of sexual harassment incidents at the workplace is that there is more to worry about under-reporting, than people misusing the law.

In 1997, in the landmark judgment of Vishaka and others v. State of Rajasthan[1], the Supreme Court of India defined sexual harassment at the workplace, pronounced preventive, prohibitory and redress measures, and gave directives towards a legislative mandate to the guidelines proposed.

Sexual Harassment includes many things:

• Physical conduct of a sexual nature that includes all unwanted physical contact,
o ranging from touching,
o to sexual assault and rape, and
o includes a strip search by or in the presence of the opposite sex.

• Verbal forms of sexual harassment that includes;
o unwelcome insinuations,
o suggestions and hints,
o sexual advances,
o comments with sexual overtones,
o sex-related jokes or insults,
o or unwelcome graphic comments about a person’s body made in their presence or directed toward them,
o unwelcome and inappropriate enquiries about a person’s sex life, and
o unwelcome whistling directed at a person or group of persons.

• Non-verbal forms of sexual harassment including;
o unwelcome gestures,
o indecent exposure, and
o the unwelcome display of sexually explicit pictures and objects.
o Making or posting sexually demeaning or offensive pictures, cartoons or other materials in the workplace
o Giving gifts or leaving objects that are sexually suggestive

• Quid pro quo harassment occurs where an owner, employer, supervisor, member of management or co-employee, undertakes or attempts to influence the process of employment, promotion, training, discipline, dismissal, salary increase or other benefits of an employee or job applicant, in exchange for sexual favours.

What the law says?

The safety of the people shall be the highest law of the land. The judiciary is the pillar for justice as it not only provides redressal mechanisms, but it also punishes the offender. The law on sexual harassment has mushroomed and nurtured after the 1997 landmark decision of the Supreme Court in the Vishaka v State of Rajasthan.
While hearing the matter, the Supreme Court noted the lack of legal recourse against sexual harassment at workplace. The Supreme Court defined what would constitute sexual harassment at workplace and issued guidelines that were to have statutory value until a proper law was enacted by Parliament.

Before the Supreme Court set the law against sexual harassment at workplace in order, such cases were dealt under IPC Section 354 (outraging the modesty of women) and Section 509 (using a word, gesture or act intended to insult the modesty of a woman).

In 2013, substantial changes were made in the way sexual harassment was viewed within the criminal justice system in India. The Criminal Law Amendment Act of 2013, which commenced on April 3, 2013, included Section 354A of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 that defined sexual harassment. The India Penal Code, 1860 has also defined the term sexual harassment and related offences and put forth punishments for the same:

Section 354A- Sexual harassment is: unwelcome physical contact and advances, including unwanted and explicit sexual overtures, a demand or request for sexual favors, showing someone sexual images (pornography) without their consent, and making unwelcome sexual remarks
Punishment: Up to three years in prison, and a fine.

Section 354B– Forcing a woman to undress.

Punishment: From three to seven years in prison, and a fine.

Section 354C– Watching or capturing images of a woman without her consent (voyeurism).

Punishment: First conviction – one to three years in prison and a fine. More than conviction–three to seven years in prison and a fine.

Section 354D– Following a woman and contacting her or trying to contact her despite her saying she does not want contact. Monitoring a woman using the internet or any other form of electronic communication (stalking).

Punishment: First conviction – up to three years in prison and a fine. More than one conviction–up to five years in prison and a fine.

The same definition is given in the law enacted specifically for Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013.

However societal attitudes towards sexual harassment has impeded any effective implementation of the law.

Why not reporting?

Though sexual harassment at the workplace has assumed serious proportions, women do not report the matter to the concerned authorities in most cases due to fear of reprisal from the harasser, losing one’s livelihood, being stigmatized, or losing professional standing and personal reputation.

How can a company create a safe work environment?

Many practical steps can be taken, as part of an integrated program, to counter harassment:

1) A clear policy from management

Management must develop a clear definition of, and policy on sexual harassment.
Concerned people should also help to make the need for such policies known.

2) Awareness of the problem, and of own, and others’ rights

Managers and all employees (male and female) must become aware of the problems inherent in harassment, and must know how to handle it.
If a clear policy exists and is well promoted, both the person being harassed, and the person considering harassing someone, will know what the individual’s rights are – what’s acceptable, and what isn’t; also where the person being harassed can lodge a complaint.

3) Complaints and disciplinary procedure

There must be clear guidelines on reporting and disciplinary procedures in cases of harassment, and these must be communicated to all staff members.
Appropriate staff members can be selected, appointed and trained as complaints officers with authority to institute disciplinary measures when necessary.
In large companies, counsellors can be appointed and trained to provide support and to give advice to staff who are sexually harassed or to counsel harassers if required. These may be the same people as the complaints officers, and could possibly also sensitise and train managers and supervisors in the implementation of the policy.

4) Education

Employers should include the issue of sexual harassment in their orientation, training and education programmes of employees.

5) Confidentiality

Grievances regarding sexual harassment must be handled in a confidential manner in regards to both parties:
Only appropriate parties (appropriate management, the aggrieved and their representatives, the alleged perpetrator and their representatives, witnesses and an interpreter if necessary) may be present in disciplinary enquiries.
It must be ensured that either party (or their representative) receives necessary information to enable them to prepare for any proceedings outlined by the company code of conduct.

6) Other supporting measures

Confidence training and development of a healthy self-esteem will help employees to deal with harassers.
An effective employment equity programme, that ensures well-planned career paths for all – based on merit, while also ensuring that people disadvantaged in the past get a fair deal – will reduce the vulnerability of individuals to harassment by people who abuse their power and authority.

A positive corporate culture, in which the rights and dignity of all staff members are respected, and a positive example is set by management, will do much to create a healthy environment in which sexual harassment can’t flourish.

Employees’ Rights and Responsibilities

Any employee who believes he or she has been the target of sexual harassment is encouraged to inform the offending person orally or in writing that such conduct is unwelcome and offensive and must stop. Complaint on sexual harassment at the workplace must be made by the aggrieved woman within a period of three months from the date of occurrence of an incident. In case of a series of an incident, within a period of three months from the date of last incident.

The complaint must be made in writing and submitted to the Internal Complaint Committee and be sent either by post or given in person. The Internal Complaint Committee also has the powers to extend the time-limit for reporting by not more than three months, if it is satisfied that the circumstances were such which prevented the employee from filing a complaint within the three-month period.

If the employee does not wish to communicate directly with the offending person, or if such communication has been ineffective, the employee has multiple avenues for reporting allegations of sexual harassment and/or pursuing resolution, complaint can be filed by:

• Her relative or friend.
• Her co-worker.
• An officer of the National Commission for Women or State Women’s Commission.
• Any person who has knowledge of the incident, with the written consent of the aggrieved woman.

If an aggrieved woman is unable to make a written complaint by herself on account of her mental incapacity, a complaint can be filed by:

• Her relative or friend.
• A special educator.
• A qualified psychiatrist or psychologist.
• The guardian or authority under whose care she is receiving treatment or care.
• Any person who has knowledge of the incident jointly with her relative or friend or a special education or qualified psychiatrist or psychologist or guardian or authority under whose care she is receiving treatment or care.
• Finally, if an aggrieved woman is unable to make a written complaint by herself on account of her mental incapacity or physical incapacity or death, a complaint can be filed by her legal heir.

Employer Rights and Responsibilities

• Provide a safe working environment at the workplace which shall include safety from the persons coming into contact at the workplace;
• Display at any conspicuous place in the workplace, the penal consequences of sexual harassments; and the order constituting, the Internal Committee under sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Act providing that every employer of a workplace shall, by an order in writing, constitute a Committee to be known as the “Internal Complaints Committee”: Provided that where the offices or administrative units of the workplace are located at different places or divisional or sub-divisional level, the Internal Committee shall be constituted at all administrative units or offices;
• Organise workshops and awareness programmes at regular intervals for sensitising the employees with the provisions of the Act and orientation programmes for the members of the Internal Committee in the manner as may be prescribed;
• Provide necessary facilities to the Internal Committee or the Local Committee, as the case may be, for dealing with the complaint and conducting an enquiry;
• Assist in securing the attendance of respondent and witnesses before the Internal Committee or the Local Committee, as the case may be;
• Make available such information to the Internal Committee or the Local Committee, as the case may be, as it may require having regard to the complaint made.
• Provide assistance to the woman if she so chooses to file a complaint in relation to the offence under the Indian Penal Code or any other law for the time being in force;
• Cause to initiate action, under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 or any other law for the time being in force, against the perpetrator, or if the aggrieved woman so desires, where the perpetrator is not an employee, in the workplace at which the incident of sexual harassment took place;
• Treat sexual harassment as a misconduct under the service rules and initiate action for such misconduct;
• Monitor the timely submission of reports by the Internal Committee.

Impact on Organization

• Financial impact: The biggest challenge that any sexual harassment case brings for a company is undoubtedly the financial repercussions. This happens because of absenteeism, low productivity, and staff turnover as a result of sexual harassment. It’s not just non-compliance penalty, but also settlement costs at a later point in time.

• Distortion of public image: Continuous media lynching at even the mere speculation of a sexual harassment case can tarnish a company’s reputation. With the upsurge of social media and never-ending media debates, the trouble has increased manifold. It is undeniable that any company primarily runs on its goodwill. With this loss of reputation, a company may find it tough to crawl out of the pit.

• Effect on work production: A recent study reveals that if an employee has faced sexual harassment at the workplace, their output will certainly be affected. This is a no-brainer, but this phenomenon is not restricted to the victim alone. Sexual harassment at any workplace also creates a lot of insecurity, disloyalty, and disharmony among other employees as well. This leads to a situation of lesser work production and acts as a huge impediment to the company’s progress.

So, what can you do if you’re experiencing sexual harassment at work?

• Be clear and firm. If the person harassing you is told when it happens the first time that you don’t approve and don’t find it funny, they might back off. Be polite, but firm, and don’t giggle. This might be interpreted as a tacit type of consent.
• Say “No” Clearly. Tell the person that his/her behaviour offends you. Firmly refuse all invitations. If the harassment doesn’t end promptly, ask the harasser to stop and put it in writing. Keep a copy of this written communication.
• Write Down What Happened. As soon as you experience sexual harassment, start writing it down. Write down dates, places, times, and possible witnesses to what happened. If possible, ask your co-workers to write down what they saw or heard, especially if the same thing is happening to them. Remember that others may (and probably will) read this written record at some point. It is a good idea to keep the record at home or in some other safe place. Do not keep the record at work.
• Tell others. Don’t keep quiet; this will only make you more vulnerable. Harassers like isolating their victims – physically and socially. If you tell others what’s going on you might also find out that you’re not the only one experiencing such situations. If more than one person lays a complaint, it significantly strengthens the case against the harasser.
• Don’t doubt yourself. Harassers often try and pass something off as a joke, however, if it’s continuously at your expense, or attacks your sense of dignity, you’re being harassed. Don’t allow harassers to make you doubt your observation, how their actions make you feel or that you’re overreacting.
• Safety in numbers. Make sure that you’re not alone with this person behind closed doors. Take a colleague with you if you feel threatened, and insist that doors be left open if you have to be in a meeting. Make sure that somebody knows where you are at all times.
• Report The Harassment. If it is possible for you to do so, tell your supervisor, your human resources department or some other department or person within your organization who has the power to stop the harassment. If you can, it is best to put your complaint in writing.
• Start A Paper Trail. When you report the sexual harassment to your employer, do it in writing. Describe the problem and how you want it fixed. This creates a written record of when you complained and what happened in response to it. Keep copies of everything you send and receive from your employer.
• Find Out About Your Employer’s Grievance And Complaint Procedures. Many employers have policies and procedures written down that deal with how to make and respond to sexual harassment complaints. To find out your employer’s policies, look for or ask to see a copy of your employee manual, any written personnel policies, and/or speak to someone in the human resources department, if one exists. You may be able to use these procedures to stop the harassment and resolve the problem. At the very least, following your employer’s complaint procedures (if any exist) will show that you did what you could to make the employer aware of the harassment.
• Involve Your Union. If you belong to a union, you may want to file a formal grievance through the union and try to get a shop steward or other union official to help you work through the grievance process. Get a copy of your collective bargaining agreement to see if it discusses the problems you are experiencing. Keep in mind that if you use your union’s grievance procedure, you must still file a complaint (or “charge”) of discrimination with a government agency before filing a lawsuit in court.
• Be Aware of Deadlines! Do not delay in reporting the problem to your employer, if it is possible to do so. If you start to feel that your employer’s process for dealing with the sexual harassment may not help you, be aware that doing nothing could mean losing your rights! This is very important! There are legal deadlines for filing a formal complaint or charge of discrimination with government agencies, and you cannot bring a lawsuit against your employer unless you have first filed a complaint with the court or the agency that enforces your state’s employment discrimination laws.

Some Myth and Facts about Sexual Harassment

Myth Fact


Only certain types of people harass others People of all types and in all kinds of occupation have been founded to be harassers. They can be people in power, co-workers and even subordinates.
Sexual Harassment is ‘natural’ male behaviour. Man is the hunter and women the prey. Men are not born knowing how to sexually harass others. It’s learned within the context of a sexist and patriarchal environment that perpetuates control over women sexuality, fertility and labour.
Women don’t rape Women can also be sexual aggressors
Men who rape are ‘psychos’ Men who rape are mostly ordinary, everyday guys.
Harassment will stop if a person just ignores it Harassers often believe that if a person ignores inappropriate / harassing behavior, that’s proof that the behavior is welcome. Many times, the behavior escalates and turn ugly

Every employer should recognize the right of every employee and volunteer to be able to attend work and to perform their duties without being subjected to any form of sexual harassment. It is the obligation and responsibility of every employee and volunteer to ensure that the workplace is free from sexual harassment.

Green wind solutions will help your company to frame a sexual Harassment policy and guidelines for your company intends to provide protection against sexual harassment of women at workplace and the prevention and redressal of complaints of sexual harassment and matters related to it.

Importance of Corporate Business Consultancy

Corporate Consultants
The corporate consultancy services are increasing day by day for various industries. The consultancy is a knowledge dispersion process through which any individual or a company out sources its information. The business consultancy services include updating the client and customers with the new emerging trend in their respective business. Business consulting provides advice and experience as a valuable resource for every country and every industry. There are several different areas in which this position applies, such as organizational development, technology, e-business, operations, communications, human resources, marketing,finance, strategic planning, small business and other organizations that find the advice of professionals necessary for their growth. When this professional advice is needed, executives turn to analysts for their expertise to help them find ways to manage obstacles and create solutions to increase productivity and efficiency.
To realize the value of consultation on company, initially the attribute features of company consulting need to be recognized. The major components in consultation to enhance up companies are developing the industry, helping the level of performance, preparing and handling business, worker enhancement, obtaining new businesses and company advancement. A company adviser utilizes these steps successfully.
Many start-up firms have a common assumption about consultant services, i.e. they are only for large and established companies. But in reality, business management consulting can improve the performance and efficiency of organisations of all sizes, be it a new player or a pro in the industry. The experts provide well-informed advice and high-quality information on a variety of topics concerning commerce, empowering firms to achieve their maximum potential.
Corporate Services include provision of strategic tools for the development and expansion of the business. The business consultancy services provide the competitors an extra edge in the competitive markets. Consultancy services are the problem solving approach where the service provider focuses on solutions rather than the problems. The service in consultation with the staff and the management works on the core domain of the problem. Hence this evaluation results in diverse solutions and better decision making process. The consultancy services works on the risks assessments and provides appropriate measure to avoid risks and to handle risks if encountered. Services are well known for their planning strategy on the basis of the resource allocation, scheduling of the various projects and termination of the project. The consultancy services evaluate the various projects in terms of their life cycle and utilization of resources and providing high quality outputs to the organization. For an effective functioning of any organization it requires effective and strategic policies based on the proper evaluation of the business. The consultancy services provide an effective medium to review these strategies and policies of the business. The company is assured the desired results by the predictions through such consultant service.
There are various catalysts that dramatically change the commercial and industrial landscapes and, if a company is not ready for the shift, it could be left behind. Emerging IT innovations, tightening environmental regulations, and decreasing market share are just some of those accelerators driving companies to keep changing. And to help them deal with these changes, consultants give them advice on all matters related to the governance of the organisation—from acquiring new tools to overseeing manpower development.
Planning and handling a company are very essential because quite often, a web page releases with a hit but is not able to collect reputation over time. This happens with a lot of other off-line products too. To avoid that, tracking the product with the right preparing is required. You might believe these are the duties of management and economic factors of a company. That is real, but consulting services could certainly make it a whole lot easier. They can manage the growth of the company and deal with the reasons which may keep the company from flourishing. These solutions can be of various kinds. A company might want to seek the services of an organization full time or just on the basis of short-term need.
Branding of services and products is crucial to success. No matter what sector or industry you are involved in, your brand should give off the right image to help attract potential customers and clients. A consultant can provide excellent information on how to use branding to the best effect, for instance, what particular demographic group to target and how to reach out to the market using available tools.The business is not only measured on the sales and pricing strategy but also on the impact it creates in the minds of its customers. The business isn’t only calculated on the sales as well as rates strategy and about the impact celebrate inside the heads of its buyers.
Financial consultation is essential since it offers entrepreneurs a real picture of the industry and the strength and weak point of their shares. As long as there will be companies, the value of an expert consultant would never reduce. Financial consultation is important as it offers business owners a true picture of the market and the strength and weakness of their stocks.
In case of legal consultation, the agency offers advises on legal concerns. For opening up a new business or launching a new product, it’s essential to go through all the legal checklists beforehand and for that, legal consulting service is necessary.
For a firm to achieve its long-term goals, it must know the areas that it needs to focus on and why. The Human Assets of an organization should be maintained in such a way to get the maximum results. Good Training modules and performance management system pave path of success in every organization. Out source training module help the organization by refreshing the employees mind power.
Under current economic conditions, pressures on provider revenue remains high. consultants must update their knowledge base frequently to keep pace with evolving business and technology needs. Green Wind Solutions Pvt Ltd shows how dynamic the business conditions are for providers and clients.
As long as there will be business ventures, the importance of a business consultant would never fade.Innovative solutions that are specific to your actual needs can come about when liaising with a Green Wind Solutions.
At the end , Green Wind Solutions is only interested in one thing, improving your bottom line so that you can see a marked increase in profits.


We hope you have opened this blog because you know that successful managers and executives use effective oral and written communication skills to get the results they need.

Many business executives pick up this blog because they wish to improve their individual skills in writing or presentations or both. Others need tips to help their team members work more effectively. Green Wind Solutions will help you with both perspectives.

We know you believe communication skills are important, because you’ve opened this blog. We hope that you will find this to be an excellent ladder for developing and refining your communication skills as you advance in your business career.


Achieving success in today’s workplace requires the ability to communicate effectively with a wide variety of audiences. Effective business communication is more than the ability of an individual to create a clear memo, a useful executive summary, a good report, or a persuasive presentation. It is a set of individual skills, team or group decisions, and company-supported policies, philosophies, and actions that promote the linkage of individuals and groups within an organization. Such linkages ensure that key strategic and operational information is shared appropriately and effectively. Managers and companies that do not develop and encourage the use of such processes give up potential competitive advantages and may under utilize company strengths. It is clear that profound changes are occurring in the way that businesses are both doing business and communicating.
Managers and executives frequently waste considerable time by using faulty processes for documents and presentations. A systematic process would enable them to work more efficiently, eliminate redundancy, and communicate their ideas more effectively. The effectiveness of management depends on the efficient means of communication.
Managers need to build teams, share information, and appropriately delegate authority to facilitate the completion of projects. A supply-chain view of a corporation, its suppliers, and customers is now accepted and widely implemented as part of an integrated resource management approach.
A good manager should be an active listener. Participate listening is as important as any other element in the process of communication. It shows again the communication is a joint responsibility of both sender and the receiver.
Managers who keep information private and closely guarded are obstacles to teamwork and to reaching common, company wide goals. Managers who do not accept input from others within and outside of their groups risk failing to identify and solidify critical connections that will make the company fast and innovative.
From cradle to grave you will communicate with a wide range of audiences. For any audience, communication is effective only when the message is understood and when it stimulates action or encourages the audience to think in new ways.
People aren’t “born” writers or speakers. The more they write and speak the more their skills improve.

communication as an Art
No matter what you are today the below ladders help you discover how to collaborate in teams, listen well, master non verbal communication, and participate in productive meetings. You will learn about communicating across cultural boundaries.

Six ladders in communication themes

Committing to ethical communication.
Adopting an audience centered approach.
Improving your intercultural sensitivity.
Improving your body language.
Improving your work place sensitivity.
Using communication technology effectively

Six ladders in process

Defining your purpose
Analyzing your audience
Gathering supporting materials
Organizing your ideas
Improving delivery skills
Dealing with speech anxiety

A business Organization is a group of people associated to earn profit. Various kinds of activities have to be performed by the people of an organization so as to earn profit. These activities need an effective and systematic communication. Without efficient communication, one can not even imagine to do work and hence will be unable to earn profit. Since the aim of business organization is to earn profit, the organization will die without profit and this death is a result of the absence of communication. This is why communication is called life blood of a business organization.

Changes are occurring in what is being communicated within and outside of organizations, why it is being communicated, and who is doing the communicating.And we guarantee that improved business writing and business presentation skills will save you time and money.


“an interactive process manifested in incompatibility, is agreement, dissonance within or between social entities.”
§ In simple words conflict may be understood as collision or disagreement.
§ It may be within an individual when there is incompatibility between his or her own goals or events.
§ It may between two individuals, when one does not see eye to eye with another, and in the process tries to block or frustrate the attempt of another.
§ Sometimes it may between two groups in an organization
Organizational Conflict
§ The discord that arises when goals, interests or values
of different individuals or groups are incompatible and those people block or thwart each other’s efforts to achieve their objectives.
§ Conflict is inevitable given the wide range
of goals for the different stakeholder in the organization.
Lack of conflict signals that management emphasizes conformity and stifles innovation.
Conflict is good for organizational performance although excessive conflict causes managers to spend too much time achieving their own ends.
Sources of Conflict
· Facts – disagreement between the relevant facts.
· Goals – incompatible goals which is difficult to achieve.
· Methods – difference of opinion in procedures, strategies etc.,
· Values – differences in ethical standards, consideration for fairness, justice etc.,
Causes of Conflict
1 Personal Differences
2 Informational Deficiency
3 Role Incompatibility
4 Environmental Stress

Stages of Conflict
1 Latent Conflict
2 Perceived Conflict
3 Felt Conflict
4 Manifest Conflict
5 Conflict Outcome
Conflict Management Styles Integrating style, high concern for self and the others, is characterized by a willingness to exchange information openly, to address differences constructively, and to make every effort to pursue a solution that will be mutually acceptable.
Avoiding style results from having little concern for either one’s own or the other’s interests. When the issue of conflict is important and requires taking over the responsibility of quick decision making, withdrawing from conflict could generate harmful outcomes for the party.
Obliging style, low concern for self and high concern for others, focuses on protecting and maintaining the relationships rather than pursuing an outcome that only meets an individual’s own concerns.
Compromising style reflects a moderate concern for one’s own interests and a moderate concern for the other’s interests. An outcome that is mutually acceptable for both sides is a desirable strategy to solve conflict. This style involves give and take.

Dominating style or labeled as “competing” is identified as win-lose strategy. Ignoring the needs and expectations of the other party and pursuing one’s own interests through the use of forceful tactics is suitable, when the conflict issues involve routine matters or require speedy decision making .
Managerial Implications on Conflict
* The Organization is filled with “yes-man”.
* Employees are afraid to admit ignorance.
* Compromise stressed in decision making.
* Managers put too much emphasis on harmony and peace.
* People are afraid of hurting the feelings of others
* Popularity is considered to be more important than technical competence.
* People exhibit resistance to change.
* New ideas are not forthcoming.
* There is usually low rate of employee turnover.

Structural Approach to stimulate Conflict
* Encourage individualistic thinking.
* Increase individual competition.
* Provide threatening information such as reduction in. profits or the loss of competitive edge in the market.
* Create role conflict.
* Change the organizational structure.

Respondent View

I. Respond appropriately to the initiator’s emotions. If necessary, let the person “blow off steam” before addressing substantive issues. If the emotions are inappropriate, interject ground rules for collaborative problem solving.
II. Establish a climate for joint problem solving by showing genuine concern and interest. Respond em pathetically even if you disagree with the complaint.
III. Avoid justifying your actions as your first response.
IV. Seek additional information about the problem. Ask questions that channel the initiator’s remarks from general to specific and evaluative to descriptive statements.
V. Focus on one issue, or one part of an issue, at a time.
VI. Agree with some aspect of the complaint (facts, perceptions, feelings, or principles).
VII. Ask the initiator to suggest more acceptable behaviors.
VIII. Agree on a remedial plan of action.
Initiator View
1. Maintain personal ownership of the problem.
2. Succinctly describe your problem in terms of behaviors, consequences and feelings (“When you do A, B happens, and I feel C.”) Use a specific incident to explore the root causes of a problem.
3. Avoid making accusations and attributing motives to the respondent.
4. Specify the expectations or standards that have been violated.
5. Persist until understood.
6. Encourage two-way interaction by inviting the respondent to express his or her perspective and ask questions.
7. Don’t “dump” all your issues at once. Approach multiple issues incrementally. Proceed from simple to complex, easy to hard.
8. Appeal to what you share (principles, goals, constraints).
Mediator View
1. Acknowledge that conflict exists and treat it seriously. Do not belittle the problem or chide the disputants for not being able to resolve the conflict on their own.
2. Construct a manageable agenda by breaking down complex or multiple issues. Help disputants distinguish central from peripheral elements. Begin working on one of the easier components.
3. Do not take sides. Remain neutral regarding the disputants as well as the issues as long as violation of policy is not involved.
4. Focus the discussion on the impact the conflict is having on performance and the detrimental effect of a continued conflict.
5. Keep the interaction issue oriented, not personality oriented. Also, make sure that neither disputant dominates the conversation.
6. Help disputants keep their conflict in perspective by identifying areas of agreement or common viewpoint.
7. Help disputants generate multiple alternatives in a nonjudgmental manner.
8. Make sure that both parties are satisfied with the proposed resolution and committed to implementing it.
ü Conflict management is the responsibility of all employees
ü Understanding your style can assist in working with others
ü All styles have their place, but collaboration is best for most work situations

Women Entrepreneurship In this Modern Time

In this modern time, almost everything changes. As the famous line says “The only certain in this world is Change”. We could see everywhere from the infrastructure that are built, the food we eat, the characters and traits we have, the discoveries made by Science, and maybe the role that we possess in the society.
But did you ever think about a woman’s role in these modern times. As we could see, it changes too. Long time ago a woman’s role is far different compared today. A woman has no power over things, as it is the man who brings every decision making for the family, and still as of today, many are doing this. A woman is left in the house, taking care of the family, deprived from many things like proper education.
In this times of modernization, there are woman who empowers themselves, and becomes famous. At the turn of the last century, there are successful woman entrepreneurs who come to the open and slowly spread there wings, to reach the skies of success. A study of women entrepreneur conducted by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GED) last December, they found out that an estimated of 187 million women starting and running businesses in 59 economies. And that is a lot of women entrepreneur which is about to equal to the population of Brazil.
Studies on women entrepreneurs show that women have to cope with stereotype attitudes towards women on a daily basis. Business relations as customers, suppliers, banks, etc. constantly remind the entrepreneur that she is different, sometimes in a positive way such as by praising her for being a successful entrepreneur even though being a woman. They must be made part of the economic development, because it will ensure the economic & social development of the women along with providing more human resources to strengthen the economy of the country. The economic status of women is now accepted as an indicator of a society’s stage of development.
Classic women business pioneers showed us the way; Coco Channel, Mary Kay Ash and Debi Fields. These were women in women-centrist businesses – fashion, cosmetics and cookies. Then came, the ‘women in a men’s world’ era with Margaret Thatcher in politics, Oprah Winfrey in media, and Ann Mulcahy in technology. Tapping into a different part of their infinite resources to make it to the top in their field.
These women do not attain all this success without failures and frustrations. But they just overcome not because they want to show that they just can but because there is patience and perseverance that is built in there own. Some qualities to be acquired by women to become truly empowered are awareness about risk prevailing at home, in work place, in traveling and staying outside home. They should have political, legal, economic and health awareness. As women, she doesn’t stop when she fails but she takes her heart with her, slowly regaining her self confidence for her loved ones. She believes that at the end of every struggles, there is something good to happen. Women seek for independence not for the sake of fair treatment but simply because she wants to be successful and that she wants to be accepted that she can always help her husband, family and society as well. Women can lead not to prove something in her, but she can lead because she has a heart willing to share, and willing to be a good entrepreneur and willing to love whole heatedly.

For now, women can have her identity, to lead, help, excel and be a woman class. She always know that she need a hand, a gentle hand from a man, to be accepted, to be loved and a woman to be proud of. In the end we would like to conclude with the following words, “Women as the motherhood of the nation should be strong, aware and alert”.


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